Several people over the years have written to The Refiner's Fire asking for an explanation about science/petrification/the age of the earth, so, we ask that you first check out our article, Science versus the Bible.
Concerning the time it takes for wood to petrify please read Does it take millions of years to petrify wood? and About Petrified Wood.
Reference the age of the Earth: The Talmud (what traditional Jews call "the Oral Torah" - which is commentary on the first five books of the Bible) says the following:
Sanhedrin, Babylonian Talmud p. 97 a.: Rabbi Kattinna said: Six thousand years shall the world exist, and one [thousand, the seventh], it shall be desolate, as it is written, And the Lord alone shall be exalted in that day. [quotation from Isaiah chapter 2 verse 11]. Rabbi Abaye said: It will be desolate two thousand as it is said, After two days will he revive us: in the third day, he will raise us up, and we shall live in his sight [quoting from the prophet Hosea chapter 6 verse 2]. Two days meaning two thousand years according to Psalms 90 verse 4.
As of this writing in February 2017, we are in the Hebrew calendar year of 5777 - very close to the year 6000. This is, of course, by man's reckoning and we cannot be exactly sure of when we'll tip the scale into the next Millennium according to the Hebrew calendar. What we can be sure of, however, is this: Judging from all the events going on in the world and specifically, in the Middle East with Israel at the center, we can be sure that Yeshua's Second Coming isn't that far off! (According to the calculations in Andrew Gabriel Roth's book, Wheel of Stars, Yeshua's Second Coming could be on Rosh Hashana, 2030!)
What we must realize is, YHWH's Feasts - His Appointed Times - reflect many major biblical events. Yeshua has so far fulfilled the first four of the seven and the next one to be fulfilled is Rosh Hashana, the Feast of Trumpets - the day when YHWH calls His people together....Sounds an awful lot like the "rapture" will occur on a Feast of Trumpets....
The above concepts are very deep and one has to have some understanding of God from the Hebrew, as opposed to the Greek mindset, which is what the Tanach was written from.