That's a difficult thing to answer because only YHWH (Yahweh) Himself knows those who are truly His. One thing we must realize, however, is that YHWH took people "to heaven" BEFORE Yeshua arrived on the scene to be temporarily represented as YHWH-Come-in-the-Flesh, as in the case of Enoch (Genesis 5:24) and Elijah (2 Kings 2:11)!
YHWH has always provided ways for Man to connect with Him, as evidenced throughout the entire Torah. Once Adam and Eve sinned and were expelled from the Garden of Eden, YHWH obviously got His Word (Torah = Divine Instructions) to Adam and Eve and their children, because we see, for instance, that Cain and Abel knew to bring "sacrifices" (see Genesis 4). We know that Noah "walked with God" (Genesis 6) and that he knew the difference between "clean and unclean" animals (Genesis 7).
We can see in Genesis 12 that our first Patriarch, Abraham, was a pagan Chaldean when God chose him, and that his son Isaac and grandson Jacob (the second and third Patriarchs) weren't "Jews" per se; they were known as "Israelites." And we see in Torah how YHWH was constantly reaching out to them to show them how to be HOLY/set apart so that they could belong to Him...So, yes, before Y'shua died on our behalf, there were ways to find favor with YHWH - and those "ways" were through obedience to His Torah!
However, two thousand years ago Yeshua said, "No one comes to the Father except through Me (John 14:6). So, we have to believe that now, since YHWH's Son died as our Final SIN Substitution/Offering (he martyred Himself, and there's no law against that!), we MUST "believe" in Him in order to get to the Father. This includes Jews, as well. It includes EVERYBODY.
(NOTE: Our use of the term "martyr" is intentional because traditional Jews love to point out that "G-d never required human sacrifice!" Well, Y'shua wasn't a "human sacrifice" because nobody "sacrificed" Him. He was a Divine Sacrifice who willingly went to the cross/stake. As a human being, He had the choice to obey YHWH or not. As we see time and time again, He CHOSE to obey. He KNEW who He was....)
Those who aren't caught up/"raptured" at Yeshua's return (His return is at the end of the seven year period after the Antichrist makes a peace treaty with Israel - see 1 Cor. 15:52, 1 Thessalonians 4:13-18 and 1 Corinthians 15:49-58), will get to see Him with their own eyes, and then they will believe. Those who became "believers" during the Millennium will be "raptured" at the end of the Millenium when Yeshua has ruled and reigned for a thousand years (Revelation 20:11-15)! And so will all the unbelievers who have ever lived, who will finally be raised to stand before their Maker. For more, please see our article on the end times.
The fact that the "dead in Messiah rise first" (1 Thess 4:16) indicates that none except for those He has already "raptured"/brought to Himself (Yeshua, Enoch and Elijah and the dead believers who came out of their graves and rose the second Yeshua died - Matthew 27:51-53) have gone "to heaven" - wherever that may be.
By the way, that scripture "to be absent from the body is to be present with the Lord" (2 Cor. 5:8) is not talking about immediate transformation where believers will be immediately next to Him. This is evidenced by Revelation 6:9 which tells us there will be souls "under the altar waiting"....It means no matter how long we've been dead, when we wake up it will seem like no time has passed.
As mentioned above, Yeshua said none will come to the Father except through Him; that means only those who believe that He is the Final Sin Substitution/Offering and have chosen to live a holy life according to Torah.
Whoever misses the "rapture" because of their unbelief will continue living (if they're lucky enough to survive what's ahead) and marrying and having babies and dying during the Millennium - and then all will be raised at the end of the thousand year reign of Yeshua on Judgment Day. At that point everyone will be judged, and those who were unbelievers will end up dead and separated from YHWH throughout eternity; and those who became believers during the Millennium will end up "in heaven." So yes, Jews do have a chance.
We must remember, believing Jews, have been much closer to YHWH than the Christians because they are Torah observant believers who, unlike Christians, have not made up their own holy days and they have been keeping the Seventh Day Sabbath and eating only kosher foods. But they are missing "the REST of the story" which is outlined in the "New Testament" - IF THEY HAVE NOT ACCEPTED YESHUA AS THEIR MESSIAH! And "the REST of the story" tells us we MUST recognize Y'shua as our Divine Messiah....