When was the visitation of the Messiah to be expected? There are two passages in the Tanach ("Old Testament") which answer this question. Two is a required number for witnessing or affirmation.
First: According to the "Seventy-weeks prophecy of Daniel" it would happen after 483 years and precisely on the 173,880th day from March 14, 445 BC, when "Messiah the Prince", "Mashiach Nagid" would present Himself as King in Jerusalem. He did, on "Palm Sunday", the tenth day of Nissan, in 32 A.D.
Second: The Prophecy of Jacob about the coming of Shiloh: Genesis 49: 10 "The scepter shall not depart from Judah, nor a lawgiver from between his feet, until Shiloh comes; And to Him shall be the obedience of the people."
The term "scepter" refers to their tribal identity and the right to apply and enforce Mosaic Laws and adjudicate capital offenses: jus gladii. It is significant that even during their 70-year Babylonian captivity (606-537 B.C.) the tribes retained their tribal identity.3 They retained their own logistics, judges, etc.4
The term "Shiloh" was understood by the early rabbis and Talmudic authorities as referring to the Messiah.5
The Scepter Departs From Judah:
In 6-7 A.D., King Herod's son and successor, Herod Archelaus, was dethroned and banished to Vienna, a city in Gaul. Archelaus was the second son of Herod the Great.6 The older son, Herod Antipater, was murdered by Herod the Great, along with other family members. (It was quipped at the time that it was safer to be a dog in that household than a member of the family!) Archelaus' mother was a Samaritan (1/4 or less of Jewish blood) and was never accepted. After the death of Herod (4 B.C.?), Archelaus had been placed over Judea as "Entharch" by Caesar Augustus. Broadly rejected, he was removed in 6-7 A.D.
He was replaced by a Roman procurator named Caponius. The legal power of the Sanhedrin was immediately restricted and the adjudication of capital cases was lost. This was normal Roman policy.7 This transfer of power is mentioned in the Talmud8 and by Josephus:
After the death of the procurator Festus, when Albinus was about to succeed him, the high priest Ananius considered it a favorable opportunity to assemble the Sanhedrin. He therefore caused James, the brother of Yeshua, who was called Messiah, and several others, to appear before this hastily assembled council, and pronounced upon them the sentence of death by stoning. All the wise men and strict observers of the law who were at Jerusalem expressed their disapprobation of this act...Some even went to Albinus himself, who had departed to Alexandria, to bring this breach of the law under his observation, and to inform him that Aranius had acted illegally in assembling the Sanhedrin without the Roman authority.9
This remarkable passage not only mentions Yeshua and His brother James as historical figures, it also underscores that the authority of the Sanhedrin had already been passed to the Romans.
When the members of the Sanhedrin found themselves deprived of their right over life and death, they covered their heads with ashes and their bodies with sackcloth, and bemoaned, "Woe unto us for the scepter has departed from Judah and the Messiah has not come!"10 They actually thought that the Torah, the Word of God, had failed! They should have known better.
The scepter had, indeed, been removed from Judah, but Shiloh had come. While the Jews wept in the streets of Jerusalem, a young "legal" son of a carpenter was growing up in Nazareth. He would present Himself as the Mashiach Nagid, Messiah the King, on the very day which had been predicted by the Angel Gabriel to Daniel five centuries earlier.11 In fact, every detail of His life had been foretold centuries earlier in the Tanach.
References and Resources:
- Jeremiah 22:30; See also Footprints of the Messiah briefing package, Koinonia House, 1994.
- Lk 3:31; 2 Sam 5:14; 1 Chr 14:4.
- Josh MacDowell, Evidence that Demands a Verdict, pp. 108-168.
- Ezekiel 1:5,8.
- Targum Onkelos, Targum Pseudo-Jonathan, and Targum Yerusahlmi, The Messiah: An Aramaic Interpretation; The Messianic Exegesis of the Targum, Samson H. Levy, Hebrew Union College Jewish Institute of Religion, Cincinnati, 1974.
- Josephus, Antiquities, 17:13.
- This transfer of power was recorded by Josephus, Wars of the Jews, Bk 2, Ch. 8 Also, The Jerusalem Talmud, Sanhedrin, folio 24.
- The Jerusalem Talmud, Sanhedrin, folio 24.
- Josephus, Antiquities, 20:9.
- Babylonian Talmud, Chapter 4, folio 37; also, Augustin Lemann, Jesus before the Sanhedrin, 1886, translated by Julius Magath, NL#0239683, Library of Congress #15-24973.
- Daniel 9:24-27. See also Daniel's Seventy Weeks, Koinonia House, 1993.
First Prophecy About the Maschiach: Genesis 3:15
Fig leaves vs. animal skin: A prophecy about the need for the shedding of blood to cover sin: Genesis 3
When Adam and Eve sinned, they sewed fig leaves to cover themselves, i.e., to cover their sin. Fig leaves are coarse like sand paper. Therefore, their own attempt to cover their sin "by their own works", i.e. the fig leaves, would only continuously remind them of their sin! But God gave them animal skin for covering, implying that He shed innocent blood to cover their sin.
This is clearly an "implied prophecy" about the need for shedding of blood for the covering of sins and most importantly, that Yahweh Himself would provide for the shedding of innocent blood!
Substitutionary Sacrifice: Abraham and Isaac
As mentioned in Genesis 22 - "the Akedah", when Abraham was going to offer his son Isaac, in response to Isaac's question about "the lamb for a burnt offering", he said, "My son, God will provide for Himself the lamb for a burnt offering." Here, we are introduced with the concept of substitutionary sacrifice and this is a typology of how ADONAI would offer His only begotten Son some 1800 years later.
"The Seed of the Woman": Genesis 3:15
After Adam and Eve's sin and after Yahweh covered them with animal skin - and, of course, not as an afterthought remedy - ADONAI declared war on Satan: "I will put enmity between thee and the woman, and between thy seed and her seed; it shall bruise thy head, and thou shall bruise his heel." [Genesis 3:15]
Thus, the "Seed of the Woman" becomes one of the prophetic titles of the Messiah. This biological contradiction is the first hint -- in the early chapters of Genesis -- of the virgin birth. There was also Yahweh's curse pronounced on Jeconiah - Coniah, or Jehoiachin - which in effect was a curse on the royal blood and the line of Judah! (Jeremiah 22)
The Hidden Message of Salvation in Genesis 5
The message of salvation was hidden in Genesis chapter 5, thousands of years before ADONAI called Himself "Savior" and "Redeemer" (Psalm 106:21; Isaiah 43:3; Isaiah 43:11; Isaiah 45:15; Isaiah 45:21; Isaiah 49:26; Isaiah 60:16 and others).
The prophet Isaiah mentions the concept of "Savior" and salvation more than others. It is very interesting that his own name [yesh-ah-yaw] means "Yah has saved". Salvation [yaw-shaw] means "to be 'made' safe, free, preserved, rescued, to bring salvation or victory.'"
An Integrated Message:
The great discovery is that the Bible is a message system: it's not simply 66 books penned by 40 authors over thousands of years; the Bible is an integrated whole which bears evidence of supernatural engineering in every detail.
In Genesis Chapter 5 we have the genealogy of Adam through Noah. Let's examine this chapter more closely. In our Bible, we read the Hebrew names - But, what do these names mean in English? Let's examine this very closely:
The study of the meaning of proper names can be a difficult pursuit since a direct translation is often not readily available. Even a conventional Hebrew lexicon can prove disappointing. A study of the original roots, however, can yield some fascinating insights! (Caveat: Many study aids, such as a conventional lexicon, can prove rather superficial when dealing with proper nouns. Furthermore, views concerning the meanings of original roots are not free of controversy and variant readings.)
The Flood Judgment:
Methuselah comes from muth, a root that means "death";1 and from shalach, which means to bring, or to send forth. The name Methuselah means, "his death shall bring".2 Methuselah's father was given a prophecy of the coming Great Flood, and was apparently told that as long as his son was alive, the judgment of the flood would be withheld; but as soon as he died, the flood would be brought or sent forth. And, indeed, the year that Methuselah died, the flood came.3 It is interesting that Methuselah's life, in effect, was a symbol of God's mercy in forestalling the coming judgment of the flood. Therefore, it is fitting that his lifetime is the oldest in the Bible, speaking of the extensiveness of God's mercy.
The Other Names:
If there is such significance in Methuselah's name, surely, the others have special meaning, as well. (In Biblical times, every Hebrew name had a special meaning.)
Adam's name means man, or ruddy. As the first man, that seems straightforward enough.
Seth. Adam's son was named Seth, which means appointed. Eve said, "For God hath appointed me another seed instead of Abel, whom Cain slew."4
Enosh. Seth's son was called Enosh, which means mortal, frail, or miserable. It is from the root anash, to be incurable, used of a wound, grief, woe, sickness, or wickedness. It was in the days of Enosh that men began to defile the name of the Living God.5
Kenan. Enosh's son was named Kenan, which can mean sorrow, a poem or a funeral song. (The precise denotation is somewhat elusive; some study aids unfortunately presume that Kenan is synonymous with Cainan.) Balaam, looking down from the heights of Moab, uses a pun upon the name of the Kenites when he prophesies their destruction.6 We have no real idea as to why these names were chosen for their children. Often they may have referred to circumstances at birth, and so on.
Mahalalel. Kenan's son was Mahalalel, from Mahalal which means blessed or praise; and El, the name for God. Thus, Mahalalel means the Blessed God. Often Hebrew names include El, the name of God, as Dan-i-el, "God is my Judge", etc.
Jared. Mahalalel's son was named Jared, from the verb yaradh, meaning shall come down.7
Enoch. Jared's son was named Enoch, which means teaching, or commencement. He was the first of four generations of preachers. In fact, the earliest recorded prophecy was by Enoch, which amazingly enough deals with the Second Coming of Messiah (although it is quoted in the Book of Jude in the New Testament):
"Enoch also, the seventh from Adam, prophesied of these, saying, 'Behold, the Lord cometh with ten thousands of his saints, to execute judgment upon all, and to convince all that are ungodly among them of all their ungodly deeds which they have committed in an ungodly way, and of all their hard speeches which ungodly sinners have spoken against Him." (Jude 14, 15)
Methuselah. Enoch was the father of Methuselah, whom we have already mentioned. Enoch walked with God after he begat Methuselah.8 Apparently, Enoch received the prophecy of the Great Flood, and was told that as long as his son was alive, the judgment of the flood would be withheld. The year that Methuselah died, the flood came. Enoch, of course, never died: he was "translated" 9 (or, if you'll excuse the expression, "raptured"). That's how Methuselah can be the oldest man in the Bible, yet he died before his father!
Lamech. Methuselah's son was named Lamech, a root still evident today in our own English word, lament or lamentation. Lamech suggests despairing. (This name is also linked to the Lamech in Cain's line who inadvertently killed his son Tubal-Cain in a hunting incident.10)
Noah. Lamech, of course, is the father of Noah, which is derived from nacham, to bring relief or comfort, as Lamech himself explains in Genesis 5:29.
The composite list:
||The Blessed God
||Shall come down
||His death shall bring
||Rest, or comfort
"Coincidence" or not - you have to admit that that's rather remarkable!
Man (is) Appointed Mortal Sorrow, (but) Blessed Elohim Shall Come Down Teaching (that) His Death Shall Bring (the) Despairing Comfort.
Here's the Gospel of salvation seemingly hidden within a genealogy in Genesis! (It is inconceivable that a group of Jewish rabbis conspired to hide the Messianic Gospel of Salvation right here in a genealogy within the venerated Torah!)
Evidence of Design:
The implications of this discovery are more widespread than is evident at first glance. It demonstrates that in the earliest chapters of the Book of Genesis, God had already laid out His plan of redemption for the predicament of mankind. It is a love story, written in blood on a wooden cross which was erected in Judea almost 2,000 years ago. The Bible is an integrated message system, the product of supernatural engineering. Every number, every place name, every detail every jot and tittle is there for our learning, our discovery, and our amazement. Truly, our God is an awesome God!
It is astonishing to discover how many Biblical controversies seem to evaporate if one simply recognized the unity and integrity of these 66 books, penned by 40 authors over thousands of years.
It is remarkable how many subtle discoveries lie behind the little details of the text. Some of these become immediately obvious with a little study; some are more technical and require special helps.
Look behind every detail: there's a discovery to be made! God always rewards the diligent student. What other messages lay hidden behind the names in the Bible? Check it out for yourself!
References and Resources:
- Muth, death, occurs 125 times in the Old Testament.
- See Pink, Jones, and Stedman in the bibliography.
- Methuselah was 187 when he had Lamech, and lived 782 years more. Lamech had Noah when he was 182 (Genesis 5:25-28). The Flood came in Noah's 600th year (Genesis 7:6, 11). 600 + 182 = 782nd year of Lamech, the year Methuselah died.
- Genesis 4:25.
- Genesis 4:26 is often mistranslated. Targum of Onkelos: ...desisted from praying in the name ; Targum of Jonathan: surnamed their idols in the name... ; Kimchi, Rashi, and other ancient Jewish commentators agree. Jerome indicated that this was the opinion of many Jews of his day. Maimonides, Commentary on the Mishna (a constituent part of the Talmud), a.d. 1168, ascribes the origin of idolatry to the days of Enosh.
- Numbers 24:21, 23.
- Some authorities suggest that this might be an allusion to the Sons of God who came down to corrupt the daughters of men, resulting in the Nephilim (Fallen Ones) of Genesis 6.
- Genesis 5:21, 24.
- Genesis 5:24.
- Genesis 4:19-25; rabbinical sources, re: Kaplan, et al.
Speaking of names in the Tanach, Proverbs 30:4 asks a question about the name of the Son of the Creator God! "What Is Creator God's Son's Name? 'If you know?'"
Why did "Agur the son of Jakeh" the writer of Proverb 30 ask his apparently Jewish audience if they knew the name of the Creator and His son's name? It was surely an obvious and a commonly known fact that God's name is "YHWH", while Israel was "My son" and "My firstborn". Why would He ask a question with an obvious answer and at the end say, "if you know"? How does that fit in the context?
Deity becomes a Baby in Bethlehem Ephratah, of Judah , Micah 5:2
Micah 5:2 mentions that a baby will be born in Bethlehem "whose goings forth are from everlasting." Again, emphasizing His deity.
The word "everlasting" here is the Hebrew "Olam" meaning, the vanishing point, concealed, time out of mind or eternity. The word "old" is "qedem" or "qedmah", meaning aforetime, ancient, eternal.
Daniel had a vision of "Ancient of Days" (Daniel 7). The word used there is Chaldean "attiyq" meaning ancient. Surely God is not old or ancient but rather timeless and out of the time domain altogether.
In this vision Daniel sees "One like the Son of Man" who is brought before the Ancient of Days. And "Then to Him was given dominion and glory and a kingdom, that all peoples, nations and languages should serve Him. His dominion is an everlasting dominion which shall not pass away, and His kingdom the one which shall not be destroyed."
Daniel's vision confirms what Isaiah prophesied (9:6 and 7) about "the Son", that of the increase of His government and peace there will be no end...from that time forward, even forever. The Daniel 7 passage, like Isaiah, also mentions an everlasting kingdom and government.
"But thou, Bethlehem Ephratah, though thou be little among the thousands of Judah, yet out of thee shall He come forth unto Me that is to be ruler in Israel; whose goings forth have been from of old, from everlasting." Micah 5:2
This verse not only identifies the significance of Bethlehem, it also points to His eventual ruler-ship, and His preexistence.
It is the remarkable Book of Ruth which connects the line of David with Bethlehem. As we recall this love story between Boaz, in the role of the kinsman-redeemer, and Ruth, who becomes his Gentile bride; it is interesting to consider the possibility that their fields may have been the very ones in which the shepherds were visited by angels that famous evening!
According to the 70 weeks of Daniel prophecy, Daniel chapter 9, there will be a Temple built, since there will be "sacrifice and offering" which will be taken away by "the prince who is to come" who confirms a covenant, a treaty, for one week, i.e. seven years, with the many (Daniel 9:24-27). This prince is not Cyrus but he is clearly identified by the scriptures themselves.
Daniel 9:26 . . . "And the people of the prince who is to come, shall destroy the city and the sanctuary."
The city of Jerusalem and the Temple were destroyed by the Romans in 70 A.D. Therefore, the prince of these people will be of a Roman descent, either the Western or the Eastern leg of the Roman Empire. (Byzantine Empire in the East includes a large portion of the Middle east.)
Seventy Weeks of Daniel Prophecy: Daniel 9:24-27
The decree in verse 24 was given on March 14, 445 BC. It is about the Jewish people, Jerusalem, the ending of sin, forgiveness of sin, to usher in everlasting righteousness (which comes only from ADONAI), Mashiach "Nagid" - Messiah the King who will be "cut off" but not for Himself, and other points.
24) Seventy weeks are determined upon thy people and upon thy holy city, to finish the transgression, and to make an end of sins, and to make reconciliation for iniquity, and to bring in everlasting righteousness, and to seal up the vision and prophecy, and to anoint the most Holy.
25) Know therefore and understand, that from the going forth of the commandment to restore and to build Jerusalem unto the Messiah the Prince shall be seven weeks, and threescore and two weeks: the street shall be built again, and the wall, even in troublous times.
26) And after threescore and two weeks shall Messiah be cut off, but not for himself: and the people of the prince that shall come shall destroy the city and the sanctuary; and the end thereof shall be with a flood, and unto the end of the war desolations are determined.
27) And he shall confirm the covenant with many for one week: and in the midst of the week he shall cause the sacrifice and the oblation to cease, and for the overspreading of abominations he shall make it desolate, even until the consummation, and which is determined, shall be poured upon the desolate.
Verse 25 clearly states that there will be 69 weeks from the giving of this decree until "Mashiach Nagid", or Messiah the King. That's 483 years, or 173,880 days, until "Moshiakh Nagid" would present Himself as "King". Considering all calendar calculations and adjustments, we come to April 6, 32 AD, the Day that Yeshua entered Jerusalem on a colt, presenting Himself as King, on the "Palm Sunday."
Zechariah 9: 9 "Rejoice greatly O' daughter of Zion; shout, O daughter of Jerusalem: behold, thy King cometh unto thee: He is just, and having salvation; lowly, and riding upon an ass, and upon a colt the foal of an ass."
Zechariah wrote his prophecies in the 6th century BC. Who would he be referring to when speaking of "thy King"?
The Concept of Kinsman-Redeemer: The Book of Ruth:
Why did the Moshiakh have to be more than a human to redeem us? In order for us to be redeemed, there had to be a "kinsman" of Adam to "redeem" us. Therefore, it was necessary that a human had to do this act of redemption; and since all humans are sinners and our righteousness is as "filthy rags" to Yahweh, therefore, there had to be an individual with a different nature who would be our kinsman. Additionally, his nature would be such that when the price of redemption would be paid, it would wash our sins away and also, this act of redemption would secure the title of the Earth out of Satan's possession.
This wonderful act of redemption, "salvation", could be done by no-one else but the Mashiach. Leviticus 17:11 says that atonement is provided only through the shedding of blood. The blood of lambs and other animals in the times of the Tabernacle and after that, at the two Temples' periods, would only "cover" their sins. For a true redemption, a sinless, innocent, and willing kinsman of Adam had to shed His blood to take our sins away: The Mashiach.
The Book of Ruth:
This tiny four-chapter romance has been venerated in college classes for its elegance as literature, but it also reveals a craftsmanship of prophetic anticipation unrivaled anywhere in Scripture. The story involves a hero, Boaz, who is in the role of a goel, or Kinsman-redeemer, whose ultimate commitment of redemption returns the land in Bethlehem to its disenfranchised former owner, Naomi, and who also takes a Gentile bride, Ruth. Boaz and Ruth begat Obed: Obed begat Jesse, and Jesse begat David; of whose line would the Mashiach come! Indeed one of the titles of the Mashiach is "The Son of David".
To follow the story, one must understand the Law of Redemption. In ancient Israel, land wasn't sold in fee simple, as we are used to. Since God was the real landowner, Israel was simply a tenant under conditions of obedience. When land was "sold," what the buyer received was only the use of the land, not clear title. There were conditions under which a kinsman of the seller could "redeem" the land back to the original family. These conditions were typically noted on the outside of the scroll defining the transaction.
In the Book of Ruth, Naomi is in the role of Israel, exiled from her land; Boaz is her kinsman, who performs the redemption of the land; and Ruth (a Gentile) is also purchased for a wife.
This "macrocode" extends to virtually every detail of the book. It is interesting that Ruth is introduced to Boaz through an unnamed servant (functioning as the Holy Spirit). It is interesting that Ruth learns how to deal with this situation from Naomi. We learn of God's plan of redemption through His dealings with Israel. It is also provocative that, in the story, Naomi learns of Boaz through Ruth. (The implications of that subtlety is left to the diligent.)
The exposition of the almost-inexhaustible "coding" aspects of this tiny book exceeds the space available here. It is also interesting that this pivotal book is also associated with the Feast of Shavout, the Feast of Pentecost. Coincidence? Hardly.
The "Branch of Righteousness" is a King:
Jeremiah 23:5, 6: "Behold the days are coming, says the LORD, that I will raise up to David a Branch of Righteousness; A King shall reign and prosper [act wisely], and execute judgment and righteousness in the earth. In His days Judah will be saved and Israel will dwell safely; Now, this is His name by which He will be called: "THE LORD OUR RIGHTEOUSNESS."
This is a reference to Messiah the Righteous King. Surely, a mere human being cannot possibly deserve to be called by this holy and awesome name. Therefore the Messiah cannot be just a human being, because our righteousness is as filthy rags to the LORD.
"The LORD, King of Israel":
Isaiah 43: 15 "I am the LORD, your Holy One, the Creator of Israel, your King."
Isaiah 41: 21 "Present your case, says the LORD, bring forth your strong reasons, says the King of Jacob."
Zephaniah 3: 15 "The King of Israel, the LORD, is in your midst."
Verse 17 "The LORD your God is in your midst; the Mighty One, will save ; He will rejoice over you with gladness, He will quiet you in His love, He will rejoice over you with singing."
Psalm 24:7-10: "Lift up your heads, O you gates! And be lifted up, you everlasting doors! And the King of glory shall come in. Who is this King of glory? The LORD, strong and mighty, the LORD mighty in battle. Lift up your heads, O you gates! And lift them up, you everlasting doors! And the King of glory shall come in. . . Who is this King of glory? The LORD of hosts, He is the King of glory. Selah
Considering the last few verses mentioned here, from Zechariah, Isaiah, Zephaniah and Psalm 24, we see that ADONAI, the King of Israel, will save, and will come to Jerusalem on a colt! What an amazing and wonderful love the LORD has towards Israel and the Gentiles.
In Psalm 22 David says that his hands and feet were pierced. Who is David talking about? Please consider the whole context of Psalm 22. It seems that an individual, speaking in the singular, is describing his own pain, feelings and sufferings on a cross. There was never "a lot cast" for David's garments (verse 18). He specifically says that his hands and feet had been pierced. A lion does much more than simply "piercing" just the hands and the feet of a victim.
Moreover, in verse 29 he mentions that the dead, "those who go down to the dust shall bow before Him." Surely, the dead will not be resurrected to bow before David but the Messiah. Also, in verse 31, they will come and declare His righteousness to a people who will be born, that "He has done this." Done what? Isn't that the fact that He offered Himself on the cross? And who is righteous but the LORD our God alone.
Psalm 110 contains another amazing Messianic passage. In this Psalm David writes, "ADONAI said to my Lord, 'Sit at my right hand till I make Your enemies Your footstool." Whose Son is "The Messiah"? The Son of David? And how can David, the writer of the Psalm, in the Spirit call his own "seed" "my Lord"?
This Psalm is written by David, inspired by the Holy Spirit of God. Biblical Hebrew, used in the writing of the original Old Testament, utilizes uniform, block characters. This means that there are no capital letters or vowel points to tell us if the writer meant to say Adonai or Adonee in Psalm 110. Therefore, we must depend on the context - that is, why Adon is used in the passage - to tell us how it should be interpreted. In many biblical contexts, Adon clearly refers to man. In modern Hebrew, young people will often address an older man as Adon or "sir". This is the most common usage of the word.
In the book of Isaiah, for instance, there are numerous occurrences of the phrase HaAdon YHWH , or "Lord God", and its variations, all of which incorporate the form Adon (Isaiah 1:24; 3:1; 10:16; 19:4. Obviously, the word Adon used in these passages refers to Deity. Micah 4:13 and Malachi 3:1 also use Adon to refer to God.
"Son of David", "Mashiach ben David", is one of the titles of the Messiah of Israel. How is it that David refers to Him as "Lord" if He is his son?
How could David call his own son, Solomon, "Lord"? Even if we suppose that David meant to say "lord", the fact remains that a father would not ordinarily address his son as "lord", or Adon. It would just be the opposite. Solomon, then, would call David "lord", because not only was David his father but also his king.
Here is the answer: King David could call his Descendant (or his "Son", the Messiah) Adon because He, the "Son of David", would not be merely a man. He would be the God-Man. Not only would the Messiah be David's "lord", or human superior, but more precisely, He would be his "Lord" and God.
When rabbis claim that the notion of a Divine Messiah is "un-Jewish", they are contradicting some of their own Jewish scholars. Unbiased scholars acknowledge that attributes of Deity were often attributed to Messianic figures or angels in ancient Judaism. It is not merely a "Christian" concept.
Midrash Rabbah (Lam. 134-135):
In one such instance, the ancient sages of Israel took it even further, applying the divine name YHVH to Israel's King Messiah. Midrash Rabbah (Lam.134-135) says, "What is the name of King Messiah? R. Abba b. Kahana said: His name is 'the Lord'; as it is stated, and this is the same name whereby he shall be called, The Lord is our righteousness (Jeremiah XXIII, 6)."
The Messianic thrust of Psalm 110 is so powerful and overwhelming, that it is hard to imagine that David was unaware of it when he wrote it. But even if David did not understand the great significance of his words at that time, the Holy Spirit knew exactly what He was doing. Contrary to the claim of the rabbis, the name 'Adon' does not exclude God as the subject.
The Sevenfold Prophecy of Psalm 110:
- David says that his Lord has been exalted to sit at the "right hand" of God Himself. This is the position of honor and prominence of a sovereign.
- David says his Lord will one day conquer and subdue His enemies. They will become His footstool.
- David says that his Lord's dominion will extend from Israel (Zion) over all the earth.
- David's Lord will command a mighty army of willing warriors.
- David's Lord presides over an eternal priesthood, the priesthood of Melchizedeck. The LORD has sworn and taken an oath regarding this matter and will not relent. It is an eternal truth. "You are a priest forever in the order of Melchizedeck."
This is the second time that the name "Melchizedeck" appears in the Old Testament. The first time is in Genesis 14:18-20, when Melchizedeck brings forth bread and wine and meets Abram. Melchizedeck was the priest of the Most High God.
According to the "law of Moses" there was separation between the priesthood and the rulership, i.e. the kings. The fact that Melchizedeck was both, a priest and a king, proves that he was from an entirely separate and different priesthood which was superior to the Levitical priesthood and preceded it by a few centuries.
Jeremiah 31, "A New Covenant":
Towards the end of this chapter ADONAI says that He would make a "new covenant" with the house of Israel. For, if that first covenant had been faultless, then no place would have been sought for a second. Because finding fault with them, He says, "Behold the days are coming, says the LORD, when I will make a new covenant with the house of Israel and with the house of Judah; not according to the covenant that I made with their fathers . . . "
In that He says, "A new covenant", He has made the first obsolete. Now, what is becoming obsolete and growing old is ready to vanish away.
In Psalm 110 the LORD swears an oath, and speaking to David's "My Lord" says, "You are a priest forever, according to the order of Melchizedek." The implication of Jeremiah 31 and Psalm 110:4 is that the Levitical Priesthood would pass away, because a new priesthood would be introduced: The priesthood of the Mashiach, with the Moshiakh being the permanent High Priest and King.
Jeremiah 31:31-34: "Behold, the days are coming, says the LORD, when I will make a new covenant with the house of Israel and with the house of Judah; not according to the covenant that I made with their fathers, in the day that I took them by the hand to bring them out of the land of Egypt, My covenant which they broke, though I was a husband to them, says the LORD...."
The following is a first century A.D. commentary on Melchizedeck:
Melchizedek, king of Salem, priest of the Most High God, who met Abram returning from the slaughter of the kings and blessed him, to whom Abram gave a tenth part of all, first being translated "king of righteousness" and then also king of Salem, meaning "king of peace", without father, without mother, without genealogy, having neither beginning of days nor end of life, but made like the Son of God, remains a priest continually;
Now consider how great this man was, to whom even Patriarch Abraham gave a tenth of the spoils. And indeed those who are of the sons of Levi, who receive the priesthood, have a commandment to receive tithes from the people according to the law, that is, from their brethren, though they have come from the loins of Abraham; but he whose genealogy is not derived from them (i.e. Melchizedeck), received tithes from Abraham and blessed him who had the promises.
Now beyond all contradiction the lesser is blessed by the better. Here mortal men receive tithes, but there he receives them, of whom it is witnessed that he lives. [Forever] Even Levi, who receives tithes, paid tithes through Abraham, so to speak, for he was still in the loins of his father [Abraham] when Melchizedek met him.
Therefore, if perfection were through the Levitical priesthood (for under it the people received the law), what further need was there that another priest should rise according to the "order of Melchizedek", and not be called according to the "order of Aaron"?
For the priesthood being changed, of necessity there is also a change of the law. For He of whom these things are spoken belongs to another tribe, from which no man has served at the altar. For it is evident that our Lord arose from Judah, of which tribe Moses spoke nothing concerning priesthood.
And it is yet far more evident if, in the likeness of Melchizedek, there arises another priest, who has come, not according to the law of a fleshly commandment, but according to the power of an endless life. For He testifies: "You are a priest forever according to the order of Melchizedek."
For on the one hand there is an annulling of the former commandment because of its weakness and unprofitableness, for the law made nothing perfect; on the other hand, there is the bringing in of a better hope, through which we draw near to God. And inasmuch as He was not made priest without an oath, for they have become priests without an oath, but He with an oath by Him who said to Him:
"The LORD has sworn and will not relent, 'You are a priest forever according to the order of Melchizedek'", by so much more Yeshua has become a guarantee of a better covenant. And there were many priests, because they were prevented by death from continuing.
But He, because He continues forever, has an unchangeable priesthood. Therefore He is also able to save completely those who come to God through Him, since He ever lives to make intercession for them. For such a High Priest was fitting for us, who is holy, innocent, undefiled, separate from sinners, and has become higher than the heavens; who does not need daily, as those high priests, to offer up sacrifices, first for His own sins and then for the people's, for, this He did once for all when He offered up Himself.
For the law appoints as high priests men who have weakness, but the word of the oath, which came after the law, appoints the Son who has been perfected forever." (He is fully equipped - Hebrews 7)
One of the Dead Sea scrolls (11QMelch), identifies him as El, or God. The Book of the secrets of Enoch cites the story of Melchizedeck's miraculous birth and subsequent ascension to heaven, where He becomes the head of a line of priests that continues until the "Advent of the Messiah."
Encyclopedia Judaica observes, "There will presumably be another eschatological Melchizedeck who will function as both priest and king" ("Melchizedeck" contributed by Ithamar Gruenwald).
6. David says that his Lord will bring down earthly governments and judge the nations (verses 5-6). The prophet Ezekiel has a similar account in his "Gog and Magog" invasion prophecy (Ezekiel 38, 39), when the LORD will intervene for the sake of His own holy name:
Ezekiel 38: 23 "Thus I will magnify Myself and sanctify Myself, and I will be known in the eyes of many nations. Then they shall know that I am the LORD." (Also Ezekiel 39:6, 7, 21, 22, 23, 25, 29)
7. David says his Lord will partake of a torrent of suffering, followed by exaltation (verse 7).</p>
The analysis of this verse in the Hebrew text yields amazing meaning: The word for "brook" is not an ordinary word that would mean a small stream (zerem or mayim), but another word that denotes a rushing river or torent (nachal). It is the same word that Isaiah uses to describe the judgment of God raining down on the wicked. ("like a stream 'nachal' of brimstone" - Isaiah 30:33)
Additionally, the word translated "in the way", (dereq), is often used figuratively to denote one's course through life. When the LORD promises to reward obedience by prospering our "way"; it's the same Hebrew word as in Genesis 24:40.
It began to look as though this verse were telling us something about the course that was laid out for our Messiah's earthly life. He would drink not merely from a cup, but from a torrent of suffering [Matthew 20:22; Jeremiah 25:15; Ezekiel 23:32; Habakkuk 2:16; Revelation 14:10; 16:19; 18:6).
The period of tragedy in Messiah's life would be followed by exaltation and victory, the lifting up of His head, as mentioned at the end of verse 7.
The entire course of the Messiah's earthly life was foreordained to lead Him through the sufferings of His humiliation, His passion and Crucifixion, and on to His exaltation, His Resurrection and Ascension.
Before King Messiah would arrive as a Conqueror, He first came as a Suffering Righteous Servant (Isaiah 53). Before He reigns on earth, He had to die and be resurrected. His precious blood would become the payment for our redemption, salvation, and eternal life: because He was the blameless, blemishless "Lamb of God that taketh away the sin of the world" (John 1:29).
Yes, Psalm 110 contains these sevenfold prophecies about the King Messiah of Israel, Adonai Yeshua HaMashiach. Who else would David be talking about? No one else, not even Abraham, Moses, or Solomon fits the description as perfectly and completely as He does.
Zechariah 12:10; 13:6
Please consider what prophet Zechariah says about His being "pierced."
Zechariah 12: 10 "And I will pour on the house of David and on the inhabitants of Jerusalem the Spirit of grace and supplication; then they will look on Me whom they have pierced."
Zechariah 13: 6 "And someone will say to Him, 'What are these wounds in your hands?' Then He will answer, 'Those with which I was wounded in the house of My friends.'"
The context and the timing here is clearly "in that day" and certain events that will happen in Jerusalem. The LORD will make Jerusalem a cup of drunkenness and a very heavy stone for all peoples and nations of the earth.
"In that day, the LORD will defend the inhabitants of Jerusalem...It shall be in that day that I will seek to destroy all the nations that come against Jerusalem . . . And I will pour on the inhabitants of Jerusalem the Spirit of grace and supplication; then they will look at Me whom they have pierced...."
It is very clear, after certain events the inhabitants of Jerusalem "will look on Me whom they have pierced." The word pierce here is "daqar" meaning strike through, stab or pierce. It is perfectly clear. "In that day", and after certain events they will look at Him. The piercing obviously has occurred at some point of time prior to "that day".
When king David spoke of the piercing of his hands and feet, there was no punishment by "piercing" in Israel. It was by stoning. The "piercing", or crucifixion, came to be practiced by the Romans.
In this passage there is a significant act of "forsaking" or an "abandonment" by some friends which will be recognized by themselves in that future time. The context is clearly the future, "in that day" and "the day of the LORD".
Deuteronomy 13 and "Shema Israel":
Deuteronomy 13 defines and describes the acts and the "qualifications" of a false prophet. Namely, that he tries to mislead people to follow "other gods". Consider what Yeshua told a Jewish scribe:
Mark 12:29-30: "The first of all the commandments is: Hear, O Israel, the LORD our God , the LORD is One. And you shall love the LORD your God with all your heart, with all your soul, with all your mind, and with all your strength."
Here Yeshua is teaching the "Shema Israel." Deuteronomy 6:4-5
Psalm 16:10-11 says "You will not leave my soul in Sheol, nor allow Your Holy One to see corruption." Who is king David talking about here since we know that he himself is dead.
David is clearly talking about another person. Someone whose soul will not be left in Sheol. This "Holy One" will not see corruption; because He will be resurrected from the dead. Who is this Holy One?
The resurrection from the dead is not a New Testament concept. Consider Psalm 17:15; Psalm 49:15; Job 19: 25-27; Isaiah 25:8; Isaiah 26:19; Daniel 12:2; Hosea 13:14. "Is anything too hard for the LORD?" (Genesis 18:14)