Belief in God: Exodus 20:2, "I am YHWH, your God..."
Prohibition of Improper Worship: Exodus 20:3-6, "You shall not have other gods..." It includes the prohibition against the worship of other gods as well as the prohibition of improper forms of worship of the one true God.
Prohibition of Oaths: Exodus 20:7, "You shall not take the name of YHWH your Elohim in vain..." Includes prohibitions against perjury, breaking or delaying the performance of vows or promises, and using God's Name as a cuss word or swearing unnecessarily.
Shabbat: Exodus 20:8-11 - "Remember the sabbath day..." Encompasses all commandments related to the Sabbath, holidays, or sacred time.
Respect for Parents and Teachers: From Exodus 20:12, "Honor your father and mother..."
Prohibition of Murder: Exodus 20:13, "You shall not murder."
Prohibition of Adultery: Exodus 20:14, "You shall not commit adultery."
Prohibition of Theft: Exodus 20:15, "You shall not steal." Includes outright robbery as well as other forms of theft (deception, unethical business practices). Also includes kidnapping.
Prohibition of False Witness: Exodus 20:16, "You shall not bear false witness against your neighbor."
Prohibition of Coveting: Exodus 20:17, "You shall not covet your neighbor's house..."